CASE 1. Let us take the following text:
.......ולימדתנו אסתר גולדנברג, חוקרת לשונו של ביאליק, שביאליק היה יוצא לראות מה העם דובר
Generally speaking, this is not a difficult sentence to understand and to translate. It tells that Esther Goldenberg is a researcher of the language of the writer Bialik. And we are told/know that Bialik took a stroll to verify which language kind people spoke.
But... we are unable to understand the first word in the sentence.
Of course, we don't find it in the dictionary.
The initial waw is very alike it is the copulative conjunction meaning "and". But even so, what does the word לימדתנו really mean? What is it? Where does it come from?
Then, the right translation of the whole of the sentence is:
And Esther Goldenberg, who is a researcher of Bialik's language, taught us that Bialik went out (= took a stroll) in order to see what (language kind) people were speaking.
Our difficult and odd word means "she taught us"
החלופה החמישית מפֵרה את הסדר הזה, ובה בעת מקיימת את מרב הדמיון (המבני והפונטי) לצירוף הרוסי.
This is not a much difficult sentence either: The fifth alternative xxx this order, and in it the fear arises the maximum of the image to the Russian locution.
In a general way we can understand what is dealt with. But the problem is xxx, the word מפִרה.
The writer was careful to help the reader by putting a tsere under the second letter. But... is it enough to help us to find this word in our dictionary? Certainly not.
If so, looking at Oham will be the most straight way to get the root of this word. We have to decide where to look: at P-t? or rather at S-t? Maybe at PS-d? Or perhaps somewhere else?
If our decision was to look at P-t... nothing would be found.
If our decision was to look at S-t.... we'd find nothing.
Only Index PS-d tells us about it: PS-d1402
Then we know that our word means: (she) violates, breaks.
From here we are able to build up a good sentence:
The fifth alternative violates this order, and in it the fear arises the maximum of the image to the Russian locution.